In a 2009 paper Ogden and Stratia (2009) discuss Bruce Tuckman’s model for how effective groups are created, which he developed in the 1960’s. Tuckman proposed four stages in his model:
- Forming: like minded people come together based on mutual interest into loose groups
- Storming: the members of the loose group experiment and test ideas about what they will do and how
- Norming: effective groups then move on to create norms of expected behaviour and commitment
- Performing: the most effective groups channel these norms into sustained action
According to Ogden and Stratia to date social technologies have tended to fit into the forming grouping while the best users of social technologies have helped to move groups to storming. But it is only when we get to Storming and Norming that we see action outside of the online world. Here network members migrate from having an awareness of an organisation to having some kind of tangible real action that goes beyond clicking a like button, actions like advocacy, volunteering or even donating. The ultimate goal of organisations on social networks should be to get to norming and perfoming stage.